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plato guardian education

Muses

Finally, at the age of fifty, those who have excelled in everything will perceive the good and will alternate philosophizing and ruling the city. The Guardian - Back to home. "The same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for their original nature is the same." By hearing such tales, youths will learn the importance of unity and will be disinclined to fight amongst themselves when they are grown. This religion believes in apparitions and symbols. Those who excel in their studies, war, and other duties will be chosen at age thirty to be tested in dialectics to determine "who is able to release himself from the eyes and the rest of sense and go to what which is in itself and accompanies truth" (437d). Further, Socrates says it is better that the philosopher-kings rule unenthusiastically or else they will become greedy for power which leads to tyranny (520d). The heroes told in stories should be brave, unafraid of death, and are not dependent on others. A progressive education that teaches men to use their existing capacity for knowledge is what Socrates intends for the philosopher-kings. Glaucon reacts as if he has stepped out of the cave for the first time and does not know what to make of his bright surroundings. Literature consists of stories being told that are actual events that took place or fictitious ones. As soon as Socrates allows fineries, however, the city quickly becomes rife with potential trouble. They presumably assert that they put into the soul knowledge that isn't in it, as through they were putting sight into blind eyes…but the present argument, on the other hand…indicates that this power is in the soul of each and that the instrument with which each learns--just as an eye is not able to turn toward the light from the dark without the whole body--must be turned around from that which is coming into being together with the whole soul until it is able to endure looking at that which is and the brightest part of that which is (518c). Proving that he is not against poetry as much as he seemed in the first account of education, Socrates uses the poetic images of the sun, the cave, and Er to educate his pupils. Unable to distinguish between good and bad and, therefore, garner examples of how not to behave from bad tales, children will only use bad examples to justify their own bad behavior (391e). Instead, the two accounts of education must be patched together and evaluated in relation to each other and the dramatic context of the dialogue in order to discover Socrates' preferred method of education. Although Socrates says potential guardians must have a certain disposition, the impressionability of the ideal nature suggests that they must only be bodily suited to the physical aspects of the job since they will be instilled with the other necessary qualities through education. This will insure that theGuardians will be brave. The primary education the Guardians is started after they have been chosen. Despite Socrates' use of "reverse psychology" to make Glaucon realize the truth on his own terms, Glaucon does not find the philosopher's life ideal, so Socrates switches tactics. Even though Socrates advocates escaping the cave and learning what is through philosophy, he never dismisses the importance of convention. If certain natures are necessary for education, then all those who are educated are deemed superior in both nature and education. The country must then take land from neighboring countries in order to be able to accommodate all of the citizens. I chose this topic because it is of interest to me since I am going to work in the field of education. When they are thirty-five, those well-trained in dialectics will be required to go back into the cave to hold offices, and testing will continue. Music is used to accompany a poem. Glaucon says, "Apollo, what a demonic excess…don't leave even the slightest thing aside" (509c). Instead of being told existing tales such as those by Homer and Hesiod, children must be told speeches about real justice, whatever it may be (392c). Socrates says that careful crafting of tales is important because they are the most effective method of educating guardians' souls. Glaucon easily grasps the idea behind the analogy and is immediately intrigued by the image, saying "It's a strange image and strange prisoners you're telling of" (515a). Therefore, the correct style of narrative for both guardians and poets is mostly non-imitative, but allows for some imitation of good men (396d). Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. Socrates skillfully explains until Glaucon grasps the concept and is able to make an account of it for himself. Like excessive displays of grief, excessive displays of happiness threaten the stoic attitude that is desirable in guardians. After being compelled to expound on the details of the city (including communism and gender equality), Socrates admits that the city should be ruled by philosopher-kings (503b) and, furthermore, that the previous account of the guardians' education was incomplete (504b). Dialectics are also to be studied. The first account of education, however, is not included in the dialogue without purpose. Whereas Glaucon was unwilling to give up the "relishes" which he loves (372c), Adeimantus, Socrates' partner for this part of the discussion, willingly gives up his favorite poets and agrees that poets must be less pleasing. Education is not what the professions of certain men assert it to be. I… First he would see shadows, then reflections in water, then things themselves, then the night's sky, and finally, the sun--which is an image of the good and what is (516b). He moves from the sun image to that of the divided line, and then develops the analogy of the cave to represent the nature of education. By the conclusion of Book IX, Socrates has moved effectively from the image of justice in a city to the image of justice in private, philosophical men. In that way you can better discern what each is naturally directed towards" (537a). Books have been taken out of libraries and classrooms that contain explicit material and teach prejudice and evil. Yet in Book VII, when Socrates revises the guardian education for the philosopher city, even this purged music is explicitly and emphatically excluded from the formal plan of education as containing no “learning matter” (mathema, 522a8, 537; cf. Plato’s education of music, gymnastics, mathematics and dialectics in the Republic helps to ensure that these three components of the soul are in harmony with each other. When a man tries by discussion--by means of argument without the use of any of the sense--to attain to each thing itself that which is and doesn't give up before he grasps by intellection itself that which is good itself, he comes to the very end of the intelligible realm just as that other man was then at the end of the visible (532b). The good is a higher reality and is responsible for our capacity to reason, as well as our very "existence and being" (509b). Plato feels that certain aspects of theology would have to be censored such as heaven being responsible for everything, both good and evil. Censorship is needed for children as Plato says. Through his refutation of the opinions of Glaucon, Adeimantus, Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus, Socrates battles the city's conventions. Quick, fiery natures suited to music are usually too unstable for courage in the face of war, and trustworthy, brave natures that excel in war are often slow intellectually (503c-d). Older, educated men, however, "will discuss and consider the truth rather than the one who plays and contradicts for the sake of the game" (539d). Plato’s Guardian Class Guardians are put into place to defend morality and rule society because they know the truth and posses the knowledge and wisdom of true forms. Medicine, Socrates says, is only welcome as a means for curing easily-fixed illnesses and should never be used to keep those unable to work alive (406). This paper will first examine the dialogue's two explicit accounts of education, addressing both their similarities and differences. But above all, they must love hard work. Socrates insists that recipients of an education in mathematics and dialectics must have a suitable nature. This is why poets who use this form will not be allowed to tell their tales to the Guardians. The first account of education can be read in light of this ideal. 504d1) leading toward being. The guardians are responsible for ruling the city. 3 The Plato’s suggestion for censorship of art and literature is extremely critical He says that philosopher-kings must have a certain nature, but then says the capacity to see the good and be educated is in all. He acknowledges that his proposed regime and its philosopher-kings are implausible and, instead, the real goal is to establish an ordered, just regime within oneself (592). The third principle of literature is the stories of heroes. Plato divides his just society into three classes: the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians. No longer is Glaucon averse to the austere lifestyle of the guardians, because now the guardians are possessors of the most illustrious power. But let us look at a feverish city, too" (372e). Thus, the guardians' education is primarily moral in nature, emphasizing the blind acceptance of beliefs and behaviors rather than the ability to think critically and independently. Socrates shows him that with the proper education, a life of noble virtue, including "moderation, courage, liberality, and magnificence" (402c) but excluding sex and excessive pleasure, will be fulfilling. Only simple instruments such as the lyre, cither, and pipe are permitted (399d). Socrates then spontaneously progresses to the cave analogy in order to explain the process of coming to know the good by means of education. Socrates says. Plato view of education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. Not only is mathematics useful for practical matters, but its abstractness causes students to exercise their intellect and ask questions about what really is. Shouldn’t the He says, "Next, then, make an image of our nature in its education and want of education" (514a). Thus, through a rigorous philosophical education, the city unshackles individuals and leads them out of the cave of ignorance and into the light of knowledge so that they are eventually able to go back into the cave and teach others. They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. Interestingly, these bad messages are the same as Glaucon's and Adeimantus' arguments against the usefulness of justice. Like stories, music according to Plato’s conception of paideia plays a major role in the education of the guardians in virtue; music education must therefore be carefully circumscribed as well so that the words, harmony, and rhythm of a song produce a graceful soul (398c-400e). There are two sections of Guardians. Separating gods from men prevents poetic accounts of the gods from being used as a model for human behavior. As an adult you should feel free to read what you want since you have already been shaped. The wisest would be the philosopher-Kings, then workers, then guardians. Through this powerful image of the cave, Socrates shows Glaucon the good and suggests how it is to be obtained. The warriors must obey the rulers. Tales must be strictly censored because young children are malleable and absorb all to which they are exposed. He does not try to tell Glaucon and Adeimantus what to think, as though he were putting "sight into blind eyes," but instead helps them turn around and focus on what is important and true. I will discuss the guardians as one section since the Rulers are picked after the primary education of the Guardians is completed. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to … Socrates' pedagogical approach with the interlocutors corresponds closely with his vision of the education of the philosopher-kings--an overlap which suggests that the allegory of the cave is representative of true Socratic education. Plato believed that literature must contain stories of truth and the divine nature of humans, which is good. If he tried to look at his new surroundings and the sun directly after leaving the dark cave, he would be blinded and would want to return to the comfort of his familiar past surroundings (515e). When it fixes itself on that which is illumined by truth and that which is, it intellects, knows, and appears to possess intelligence. 1 Plato’s scheme of education was for the guardian class other classes like peasant and artisan were not covered. Guardians are created when the country begins to be too small for it’s inhabitants. Instead, they must escape the cave, be educated in the good through philosophy (521c), and then return to the cave to rule and enlighten others (519d). In the second account of education, Socrates says that the best education should be more like play than work (536d). With the ever-present danger of tyranny accompanying military rule, efforts must be made to curb the guardians' natural tendency to lord over the citizens. According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when each individual develops his or her ability to the fullest. Most existing stories, Socrates claims, send inappropriate messages and must be outlawed. With regards to censorship, I always felt that any form of censorship was wrong. Socrates' ludicrous examples, different images, and persistent questioning are clearly intended to help guide his pupils upward through the levels of reality to the highest, truest knowledge of what is. Most importantly, Socrates insists that rhythm must follow speech, not the other way around. In conclusion, I feel that Plato’s take on education is well developed. Instead of using irony, Socrates uses images to teach the interlocutors. The first part of their education would be on literature. The higher section is the Philosophic Rulers and the lower section is the warriors. I now feel that censorship is sometimes needed after reading Plato’s views on censorship. The hero Achilles must be absent from all tales, because children cannot see lamenting or gross displays of immoderate emotion glorified for fear they will adopt the practices as their own (388). Knowledge of the good is the ultimate virtue; without it the attainment of other virtues is impossible (505a). Plato believed that these false tales that talked about the faults of Gods and heroes would mold children. When he can distinguish ugliness he will be able to ignore it and be able to maintain his divine nature. According to Socrates, virtue is knowledge. Plato feels that a poet should not be able to tell a story in dramatic form. Thus, despite the seeming confusion of the dialogue, it displays in its entirety the divided line, the movement from seeing images to intellecting particulars, and the ideal process of education. Glaucon protests the unfairness of forcing the liberated philosophers to go back into the cave (519d), but Socrates insists that, although it is unappealing, philosophers will serve the state because they are indebted for their own enlightenment, love knowledge, and accept that the good of the city is more important than their own happiness. Learning to love fine things and hate ugly things as a child will help them appreciate reasonable speech and find pleasure in living moderately when grown (402a). The Guardian must have a healthy body and maintain perfect physical condition. Latest education news, comment and analysis on schools, colleges, universities, further and higher education and teaching from the Guardian, the world's leading liberal voice Plato felt that most tales were unsatisfactory because of their content and must be supervised. I thought about my religion, which is Catholicism, and their view on God holding other forms. Socrates says, "Don't use force in training the children in the studies, but rather play. The Education of the Guardians [Republic II and IV] Plato BOOK II In Book II of the Republic, Plato has his mouthpiece, Socrates, imagine how it is that a state comes into being. Guardian. If a God were perfect and good then he would not be affected by outside influences and would be able to maintain his perfection. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through t… Given the dramatic context of the dialogue (that Socrates is educating the interlocutors), I would assume that he believes more in the importance of education rather than that of nature. Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). Although music is the most important component in the guardians' education, equilibrium between music and gymnastics is important for the production of moral guardians. They need to be gentle when they are dealing with the citizens of the state. He says that these poets' tales include bad lies, which further unrealistic images of the gods and heroes (377e). I now understand that educators and parents do not want their easily impressionable children to read books that could teach unjust or morally wrong principles. Next, he teaches about thought through his discussion of the philosopher-kings' education and dialectics. They must be fierce in order to go to war or ward off invasion. By making the gods incapable of dishonesty and connected only with what is good, Socrates distances them from the world of men in which lying and deception are ever-present. A summary of Part X (Section5) in Plato's The Republic. . Gymnastics is mainly responsible for preventing illness and the need for medicine in the city. Instead, recipients of a philosophical education are indebted to the city and must use their knowledge to make the cave/city as enlightened as possible without destroying it. Unlike the philosopher-kings appearing later in the book, these philosophically natured guardians approve only of that with which they are already familiar and they attack whatever is new. By asserting that the highest virtues are acquired through education and are a matter of refined taste, Socrates combats Glaucon's love for base pleasures. Following his discussion of medicine, Socrates discusses the appropriate character of judges. This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). Gods must never be shown as unjust for fear that children will think it acceptable and honorable to do injustice. In line with this, Socrates' creation and discussion of the city is a playful activity (536b). 2 His scheme of education is a lifelong procedure. It would be from the elite of the auxiliaries that a philosopher guardian would emerge, as they had worked their way through the education and training. Thus, Socrates revises the prior education by introducing the study of numbers/calculations, geometry, and cubes. The first part of education focused on the content of literature so the second part must focus on the form. From what Socrates says here, it seems as if the natures with which children are born matter less than their education; anyone can be a philosopher with the right training.1 Also, unlike the first education, the purpose of the philosopher-kings' education is to eventually teach children how to distinguish right from wrong by showing them the whole truth. Education in music (which includes speeches) begins with the telling of tales in the earliest years of childhood because that is when people are most pliable. It is now clear that Socrates himself is down in the cave, somewhat against his will,2 attempting to help the interlocutors turn from the dark of ignorance to the light of knowledge and realize what is. Plato feels that stories that would make the Guardians become god-fearing should be eliminated because a Guardian should not fear God. The play which he advocates, however, is not without responsibility. This reminds me of the lecture in class about the Evil Genius. The guardians that are undergoing this rigorous form of education do not study mathematics for practical purposes. He leads them toward the light by means of questions and dialectics until they are able to make an account of their knowledge for themselves (511c-d). In Plato’s theory of the guardian class the state may end up serving the guardians and education may become the primary goal, instead of the well being of the population. Using the discussion of justice, Socrates formulates an active model of the educational process and guides his students through the levels of intelligibility and knowledge. In fact, in ancient Greece music was part of basic education and even religious or civic gatherings. But if poets and guardians are to imitate (which they doubtlessly will since Socrates' whole discussion of the importance of good tales relies on the idea that children will imitate good examples), they must copy those virtues which they have been taught since childhood (courage, moderation, holiness, freedom) (395c). When Socrates describes the good, Glaucon has trouble understanding its complexity, so Socrates takes a step back and uses the sun image to convey his point. The Republic of Plato is a book consisting of dialogues held by Plato. Physical training is an important aspect because an educated Guardian would be of no use if he were unable to protect and serve. Plato strongly held that in order to achieve this, then literature must be censored. In order to discuss the education of the guardians, I need to talk about who the guardians are and why they are needed. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, translit. Plato, the Greek philosopher, considered music special and devotes broadened attention to the subject in his works Republic and in Laws. Socrates says of calculation, "It leads the soul powerfully upward and compels it to discuss numbers themselves" (525d). Socrates asserts that if someone were to drag him "away from there by force along the rough, steep, upward way, and didn't let him go before he had dragged him out into the light of the sun" (516a), the prisoner would fight and be resentful, and even then, would not be able to see everything at once. Before, education consisted of telling false tales to children so that they would absorb the material and have correct opinions. Moreover, a proper training in this kind makes a man quick to perceive any defect or ugliness in art and nature” (chapter 9, page 90). If we were too spirited, we would become overly aggressive. The study of complex, elusive concepts pushes one to study what is permanent and perfect. Quality Education paper writing help. Education would play a major role in deciding who would be in what class. Plato, however, does not see the bearing of children as a problem in the education of women, nor is it a hindrance to their role as guardian. Likening the guardians to philosophical "noble puppies," philosophically educating the guardians by sheltering them, attacking the use of poetry, and telling the guardians that their education and childhood was a dream (414d) are all so implausible that they strike a cord suggesting that the opposite is true. Socrates' incessant use of irony causes us to have our own interrogative and dialectic relationship with the dialogue, which increases our capacity to understand what is. The most explicit account of education arises after Glaucon questions the moderate and plain lifestyle required in Socrates' just city "of speech" (369a). He holds that students must not be allowed free reign with dialectics at too young an age, because, instead of using their newfound knowledge for the good of the city, they might be tempted to forsake the city's laws and conventions in favor of more base pursuits (538a-c). The second principle of literature would be theology. Melodies imitating the sounds and accents of men courageous in the face of danger and those suitable to peaceful men are allowed, but modes suiting laments or revelries are forbidden (399b). Simply by aiming for true knowledge, this education is more philosophical and Socratic than the first. The three forms of storytelling are dramatic, tragedy, and comedy. The content of tales is meant to instill virtue and a certain theology in the hearers. Education in music for the soul and gymnastics for the body, Socrates says, is the way to shape the guardians' character correctly and thereby prevent them from terrorizing the citizens. Suitable tales must glorify and encourage moderation; they must display obedience to superiors and temperance in drinking, eating, sex (389e), and love of money and possessions (390e). Socrates' style of questioning/answering and refuting arguments also gains meaning after his discussion of the philosopher's return to the cave and dialectics. But when it fixes itself on that which is mixed with darkness, on coming into being and passing away, it opines and is dimmed, changing opinions up and down and seems at such times not to possess intelligence (508d). Through the telling of carefully crafted tales, mothers and nurses will shape their children's souls (377c). Only modes that express traits a guardian should hold will be left uncensored. Socrates identifies this subject by describing it as the lowly business of distinguishing the one, the two, and the three—the number. (40) In Plato's ideal society, mothers are to be between 20 and 40, fathers between 25 and 55. Socrates next reveals why philosophical education is often resisted and how educational enlightenment is progressive. This would insure that the Guardians would not become immoral and unjust. Unlike in the first account when Socrates explicitly says that moderation excludes the possibility of lusty pleasure (402e), now Socrates paints the good as though it were as appealing as sex, making Glaucon willing to do anything to obtain the good. Plato considered bravery to be one of the most important attributes a guardian should possess. Moreover, children are expected to accept whatever they are told with little free-thought. But despite his adamancy that knowing is superior to opining, Socrates himself claims not to know the good, which allows him to explore it jointly with Glaucon. Get an answer for 'Describe the education of the guardians as it is presented in books 2 and 3 of Plato's Republic.' Beginning by imagining the just city, Socrates initiates the educational progression from large images to small ones. I first read this book two years ago. Stories of heroes that are to be told should only consist of heroes who hold the same values and characteristics, which the Guardians should have. After Socrates unveils the cave analogy, in retrospect the whole dialogue leading up to the cave appears to be an example of Socrates' pedagogical method.

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