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cost of seagrass restoration


Aquatic Botany 90(2): 204-208. In New Zealand, a national scale inventory of seagrass has recently been collated by the Department of Conservation’s SeaSketch project. These parameters are also likely to be important for seagrass colonization, and should be given equal consideration as the more well-known and studied parameters of light, depth and water quality. 175pp. doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.2.5, Benito-Garzón, M., Ha-Duong, M., Frascaria-Lacoste, N., and Fernández-Manjarrés, J. HAM2012-037. (2016) has highlighted considerations, such as the removal of the original cause of seagrass decline or site-specific planting techniques, that needs to occur before starting on any restoration activity. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-93043-5_15, Williams, S. L. (2001). doi: 10.1071/MF12032, Statton, J., Dixon, K. W., Irving, A. D., Jackson, E. L., Kendrick, G. A., Orth, R. J., et al. 21, 1419–1426. Aquacult. (2008). B. Seed germination in a southern Australian temperate seagrass. Estuaries 27, 793–806. Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, Marine Ecosystem Restoration (MER) – Challenges and New Horizons Mar. Quantifying and modelling the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrass meadows – a critical assessment. Yet sediment dynamics are relatively understudied (except see Campbell et al., 2018) and often neglected in seagrass site suitability assessments and preparation. Aquat. Seeds in motion: genetic assignment and hydrodynamic models demonstrate concordant patterns of seagrass dispersal. Long-term monitoring is also needed for restoration projects, with approximately 61% of Australian and New Zealand studies monitoring beyond a year, although the longest running Posidonia restoration site has been monitored in excess of 20 years (Supplementary Table S1; Figure 1). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01150.x, Leschen, A. S., Ford, K. H., and Evans, N. T. (2010). Geo-Mar. Front. This cost can be greatly reduced by engaging “citizen scientists” or volunteers. Oikos 117, 763–777. The nails were uncoated pure iron (not corrosion treated) and corroded within the first year without leaving heavy metals in the sediment. Effects of current on photosynthesis and distribution of seagrasses. (in press). Bot. Seagrass beds not only provide critical habitat for commercially important juvenile fish and shellfish but also improve coastal water quality by absorbing nutrients and trapping fine sediments. doi: 10.1111/conl.12605, Sinclair, E. A., Anthony, J. M., Greer, D., Ruiz-Montoya, L., Evans, S. M., Krauss, S. L., et al. Bioscience 62, 56–65. Quantifying the dispersal potential of seagrass vegetative fragments: a comparison of multiple subtropical species. Restor. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. These decision support tools are easy to use, and easily adaptable to suit different conservation priorities. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event. Res. Freshw. Coast. 19, 103–132. Seed supply for broadscale restoration: maximizing evolutionary potential. (2018). Evidence of genomic adaptation to climate in Eucalyptus microcarpa: implications for adaptive potential to projected climate change. Available at; (accessed March 3, 2019). (2013). A review of techniques using adult plants and seeds to transplant eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Coastal Bays. Glob. Mar. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/nph.14944, Campbell, M. L., and Paling, E. I. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00952.x. Although there is a growing understanding of the movement ecology of seagrasses (McMahon et al., 2014; Smith et al., 2018), studies on propagule viability and survival, and establishment success are currently limited (but see Campbell, 2003; Weatherall et al., 2016). Prog. Ecosphere 6:23. doi: 10.1890/ES14-00460.1, Zedler, J. Bull. 38, 495–522. DMF provides expertise and leadership in issues pertaining to eelgrass. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3770(03)00016-0, Campbell, M. L., Heppenstall, L. D., Hendry, R., Martin, R., Sørensen, S., Rubenstein, A. N., et al. Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies. Such collaborations with Indigenous sea ranger programs provide a great model to facilitate restoration and assist the existing traditional custodianship of Sea Country into the future. Biol. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.01.012, York, P. H., Smith, T. M., Coles, R. G., McKenna, S. A., Connolly, R. M., Irving, A. D., et al. (1997). 7:617. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00617. The effect of storage condition on viability of Enhalus acoroides seedlings. An experimental study in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. (2017). Restoration • Monitoring • Adaptive management – budget for these expenses but hope not to use them • 1 ac (0.4 ha) ~ $15K (Fonseca et al. Previous studies also indicate that genetic diversity is positively correlated with seagrass-related community species richness and productivity (Crutsinger et al., 2006; Whitlock, 2014). Seagrass can be a cost effective flooring if you want 100% natural materials. These high costs have hindered efforts over the years. Nature 504, 79–83. doi: 10.1890/10-1865.1, Moksnes, P.-O., Gullström, M., Tryman, K., and Baden, S. (2008). Storm-generated fragments of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica from beach wrack – a potential source of transplants for restoration. Ecol. “Decline and restoration ecology of Australian Seagrasses,” in Seagrasses of Australia: Structure, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, G. A. Kendrick, and P. J. Ralph (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 665–704. Extreme temperatures, foundation species, and abrupt ecosystem change: an example from an iconic seagrass ecosystem. doi: 10.1007/s12237-010-9272-7, Li, M., Lundquist, C. J., Pilditch, C. A., Rees, T. A. V., and Ellis, J. Spatial patterns of genetic connectivity can inform decision-making and help to prioritize management actions (e.g., Sherman et al., 2016). 448, 173–176. Pretoria: Department of Environmental Affairs. However, in recent times this situation has changed, with the relative frequency of La Niña climate events and severe storms leading to sustained losses (McKenna et al., 2015) and cases where natural seagrass recovery is unlikely. Tuya, F., Haroun, R., and Espino, F. (2014). “Set-backs and successes: seagrass restoration in the Dutch Wadden Sea,” Paper Presented to World Seagrass Conference, Singapore. Geography Prof Takes on Seagrass Restoration Research Under New Grant. *Correspondence: Craig D. H. Sherman,, Front. doi: 10.1007/s00367-020-00640-0, Dafforn, K. A. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(00)00195-7, Trevathan-Tackett, S. M., Sherman, C. D., Huggett, M. J., Campbell, A. H., Laverock, B., Hurtado-McCormick, V., et al. All Rights Reserved ©, A rapid and simple method for transplanting eelgrass using single, unanchored shoots. (2020a). 9, 228–241. Bot. The BuDS technique involves the collection of mature reproductive shoots which are placed in mesh nets attached to buoys, suspended above plots to be restored with the aim that negatively buoyant seeds when released, will settle over the desired restoration plot (Pickerell et al., 2005; Figure 2). These efforts resulted in epifauna invertebrate recovery in the 1990s (Lefcheck et al., 2017). Change 8, 338–344. Like seagrasses, shellfish reefs are also some of the most degraded marine ecosystems globally (Beck et al., 2011), and a cross-ecosystem restoration approach could benefit both oyster reefs and seagrasses. 80, 283–289. (2016). This is critical for the future conservation of this important ecosystem and the ecological and coastal communities they support. Assisted colonization is not a viable conservation strategy. The level of genetic diversity of source and recipient seagrass meadows is also an important factor to consider when augmenting remnant seagrass meadows or establishing new meadows. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.038, Macreadie, P. I., Trevathan-Tackett, S. M., Baldock, J. Estuar. Thiodiazotropha) are identified and incorporated into restoration plans. Eelgrass recovery after nutrient enrichment reversal. A comparative assessment of approaches and outcomes for seagrass revegetation in Shark Bay and Florida Bay. Manag. Substantial inter-annual and small-scale spatial variability in sexual reproduction has been reported from studies in Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, and New Zealand, with results suggesting that the timing and intensity of flowering are influenced by processes occurring across a range of spatial scales (Dos Santos and Matheson, 2016; Smith et al., 2016; Sherman et al., 2018). In turn, scientists can also gain valuable insights into local environmental and socio-economic conditions from regional managers who have on-the-ground experience and knowledge, which could prove to be extremely beneficial to restoration programs. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting. Biol. Declining seagrass habitats are recognized as a significant threat to fisheries production, with estimates that seagrasses contribute AUD $31.5 million per year to Australia’s commercial fisheries (Jänes et al., 2019). doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.029. Ecol. Transplantation as a method for restoring the seagrass Posidonia australis. The use of aquaculture systems in seagrass restoration is relatively new, and the few published studies to date have shown promising results. Campbell, M. L. (2003). Enhancing stocks of the exploited limpet Patella candei d’Orbigny via modifications in coastal engineering. Assisted gene flow to facilitate local adaptation to climate change. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71354-0_6, McMahon, K., van Dijk, K.-J., Ruiz-Montoya, L., Kendrick, G. A., Krauss, S. L., Waycott, M., et al. Acad. In New Zealand, the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti O Waitangi) underpins the Crown-Māori relationship and Treaty settlements are enabling Māori to be increasingly involved in resource management as owners, managers or co-managers of strategic environmental assets. (1993). Researchers: Robert Orth, Scott Marion, Steve Granger, Mike Traber. Resulting plant densities exceeded target densities of 10 plants m–2 (Figure 2). doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2008.01.020, Wadgymar, S. M., Cumming, M. N., and Weis, A. E. (2015). “Review of Australian rehabilitation and restoration programs,” in Seagrass in Australia. (2011). We have now reached a point where ecologically meaningful large-scale seagrass restoration is possible given enough scientific, community, and political support. Similarly, plant-soil feedbacks are emerging as an important area in terrestrial restoration projects, where interactions between plants, soil and soil microorganisms can have positive impacts on ecosystem functions. Such approaches can help to broaden the genetic basis of restored populations to overcome risks maladaptation by providing new genetic variants for selection to act on (Prober et al., 2015; Wood et al., 2019). Adaptive genetic diversity of trees for forest conservation in a future climate: a case study on Norway spruce in Austria. This includes clear delineation of roles and responsibilities between various agencies, and attachment of necessary resources to deliver meaningful programs. B., Thornber, C. S., et al. doi: 10.5558/tfc2011-090, Wood, G., Marzinelli, E. M., Coleman, M. A., Campbell, A. H., Santini, N. S., Kajlich, L., et al. Terrados et al. Assisted colonization and rapid climate change. A Rapid Response Assessment. Ecological significance and commercial harvesting of drifting and beach-cast macro-algae and seagrasses in Australia: a review. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12988, Wang, T. L., Wang, G. Y., Innes, J., Nitschke, C., and Kang, H. J. A few restoration trials in Australia and New Zealand have utilized community volunteers, such as the collection of Posidonia shoots detached after storms for transplantation3, community planting days on Kangaroo Island (Tanner et al., 2014), engaging recreational fishers in broadcasting seagrass seeds (Seeds for Snapper)4, collection of Z. muelleri spathes for seed-based restoration in partnership with Indigenous sea rangers (Gidarjil Development Corporation) in the Port of Gladstone (Central Queensland University, 2020), and participation in seagrass transplantation trials in Whangarei and Porirua Harbors, New Zealand (F.E. 24, 473–486. (2012). Seagrass Research and Rehabilitation Plan Synthesis Report July 2003 to June 2010. Eng. (2016). doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2008.00045.x, Browne, L., Wright, J. W., Fitz-Gibbon, S., Gugger, P. F., and Sork, V. L. (2019). doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00690.x, Byars, S. G., Papst, W., and Hoffmann, A. These conditions are predicted to become more common with climate change (Rasheed and Unsworth, 2011), making knowledge of how to restore these tropical species increasingly important. 29, 1484–1502. Res. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190914. Aust. Biogeogr. (2014). Thus, the overall effectiveness of the method might be limited. 513, 85–96. Mar. Successful eelgrass (Zostera marina) restoration in a formerly eutrophic estuary (Boston Harbor) supports the use of a multifaceted watershed approach to mitigating eelgrass loss. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2018.02.014, Carstensen, J., Krause-Jensen, D., Markager, S., Timmermann, K., and Windolf, J. (2018). Plastic pollution of the world’s seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance. 15:20190460. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2019.0460, Jordan, R., Hoffmann, A. Biol. 116, 104–109. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12240, Williams, E. K., Watene-Rawiri, E. M., and Tipa, G. T. (2018). Habitat restoration and creation may include efforts such as the physical planting of seagrasses, distribution or planting of seagrass seeds, or coastal engineering to modify sediment and/or hydrodynamic regimes (Campbell, 2003; Weatherall et al., 2016). Coast. 11, 1472–1488. Sherman, C. D. H., York, P., Smith, T., and Macreadie, P. I. Initial seagrass restoration studies date back to 1939, with the majority of the work occurring in the United States, Europe or eastern Asia (China, Japan, and Korea). Coasts 33, 1340–1354. (2014). Res. Wellinton: Department of Conservation, 82. Bull. (2012). Removing threats, proximity to donor seagrass beds, planting techniques, project size and site selection all play roles in a restoration effort’s success. Evol. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71354-0_20, Tan, Y. M., Saunders, J. E., and Yaakub, S. M. (2018). Contrasting recovery of shallow and deep water seagrass communities following climate associated losses in tropical north Queensland, Australia.

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